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As early as 1839, French scientist Becqurel discovered that light can cause potential differences between different parts of semiconductor materials. This phenomenon was later called "photovoltaic effect", or "photovoltaic effect" for short. In 1954, American scientists Chapin and Pirson made the first practical single-crystal silicon solar cell in Bell Labs in the United States, and the practical photovoltaic power generation technology that converted solar energy into electrical energy was born.

After the 1970s, with the development of modern industry, the global energy crisis and air pollution problems have become increasingly prominent. Traditional fuel energy is being reduced day by day, and the harm caused to the environment has become increasingly prominent. At the same time, about 2 billion people worldwide have not been able to get it. Normal energy supply. At this time, the whole world has set its sights on renewable energy, hoping that renewable energy can change human energy structure and maintain long-term sustainable development.

With its unique advantages, solar energy has become the focus of attention. Abundant solar radiant energy is an important energy source. It is an inexhaustible and inexhaustible source of energy that is pollution-free, cheap, and free for human use. The energy of solar energy reaching the ground per second is as high as 800,000 kWh. If 0.1% of solar energy on the earth's surface is converted into electricity, the conversion rate is 5%, and the annual power generation can reach 5.6 × 1012 kWh, which is equivalent to 40% of the world's energy consumption Times. Because of these unique advantages of solar energy, after the 1980s, the number of solar cells continued to increase, the application range became wider, and the market size gradually expanded.

After the 1990s, photovoltaic power generation developed rapidly. By 2006, more than 10 megawatt-level photovoltaic power generation systems and 6 megawatt-level connected photovoltaic power plants had been built in the world. The United States was the first country to formulate a development plan for photovoltaic power generation. In 1997, the "Million Roofs" plan was introduced. Japan launched the New Sunshine Program in 1992. By 2003, Japan's photovoltaic module production accounted for 50% of the world, and four of the world's top 10 manufacturers were in Japan. The German New Renewable Energy Law stipulates the on-grid tariff for photovoltaic power generation, which greatly promotes the development of the photovoltaic market and industry, making Germany the fastest developing country in the world for photovoltaic power generation after Japan. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also formulated photovoltaic development plans and invested huge sums of money in technology development and accelerated industrialization.

The average annual growth rate of photovoltaic modules in the world from 1990 to 2005 was about 15%. In the late 1990s, development was even more rapid. In 1999, photovoltaic module production reached 200 MW. The efficiency of commercialized batteries has increased from 10% to 13% to 13% to 15%, the production scale has grown from 1 to 5 MW / year to 5 to 25 MW / year, and it is expanding to 50 MW or even 100 MW. Production costs for photovoltaic modules have fallen below $ 3 / watt.

Status and trends

In 2011, the global newly installed capacity of photovoltaics was about 27.5GW, compared with 18.1GW in the previous year, an increase of 52%, and the cumulative global installed capacity exceeded 67GW. Of the world ’s total installed capacity of nearly 28GW, nearly 20GW of systems were installed in Europe, but the growth rate has slowed down relatively. Among them, the Italian and German markets accounted for 55% of the global installed capacity growth, respectively 7.6GW and 7.5GW. In 2011, the demand for the photovoltaic industry in the Asia-Pacific region represented by China, Japan, and India increased by 129% year-on-year, and its installed capacity was 2.2GW, 1.1GW, and 350MW. In addition, in the increasingly mature North American market, new installations were about 2.1GW, an increase of 84%.

Among them, China is the country with the fastest growth in global photovoltaic power generation installations. In 2011, photovoltaic power generation installations increased by about 5 times compared to 2010. In 2011, battery output reached 20GW, accounting for about 65% of the world. By the end of 2011, there were about 115 battery companies in China, with a total capacity of about 36.5GW. Among them, there are 14 companies with a production capacity of 1GW or more, accounting for 53% of the total production capacity; 63 companies between 100MW and 1GW, accounting for 43% of the total production capacity; the remaining 38 production capacity are all within 100MW, accounting for only the national total. 4% of production capacity. The differentiated competition pattern of scale, technology and cost has gradually become clear. The top ten domestic module manufacturers account for 60% of total battery output.

In the next ten years, China's photovoltaic power generation market will shift from independent power generation systems to grid-connected power generation systems, including desert power stations and urban rooftop power generation systems. China ’s solar photovoltaic power stations have great potential. With active and stable policy support, by 2030, photovoltaic installed capacity will reach 100 million kilowatts, and annual power generation will reach 130 billion kilowatt hours, equivalent to less than 30 large coal power plants. The country will invest 20 billion yuan to subsidize the photovoltaic industry in the next three years. China ’s solar photovoltaic power generation has ushered in a new round of rapid growth and attracted more strategic investors into this industry.

In the first half of 2015, the country's cumulative photovoltaic power generation reached 19 billion kilowatt hours. [1] 

On September 7, 2015, the first photovoltaic power generation project in Jiangsu Province was officially connected to the grid in Pukou District, Nanjing, and rural residents also used "green electricity." Next, photovoltaic power generation projects will be promoted in rural substations. [2] 

In November 2015, Lai'an County, Anhui Province started a rural photovoltaic power generation project, and 11 beautiful rural “empty shell villages” with photovoltaic power plants with an installed capacity of more than 60KW entered the tendering process. According to preliminary estimates, each village can provide 72,000 KWh of clean electric power each year after grid-connected power generation, and the village-level collective economy can increase income by more than 50,000 yuan. [3]

From January to June 2015, the country's newly installed photovoltaic power generation capacity was 77.30 million kilowatts. As of the end of June 2015, the country's photovoltaic power generation installed capacity reached 35.78 million kilowatts. [4-5]

Since 2013, photovoltaic power generation has added installed capacity of more than 10 million kilowatts for three consecutive years; as of the end of 2015, the cumulative installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation reached approximately 43 million kilowatts, surpassing Germany to become the world's number one. In addition, the photovoltaic industry is making efforts to "go global".

National Energy Administration data show that in 2015, the export volume of photovoltaic cells and modules reached more than 25 million kilowatts, and the export value reached 14.4 billion US dollars.



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